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1. Invalid, so not good. No aardvarks are non mammals is an E claim, so you can do a conversion on it and an obversion on it to get equivalent claims. Conversion: No non mammals are aardvarks. Obversion: All non mammals are non aardvarks. It soon becomes obvious that no immediate inference that results in equivalence will result in the conclusion of this argument, which is an O claim.
10. Translation: All people who are allowed to enter this competition are non professional athletes Shade 1.
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Some people who receive welfare are people who are single parents. Put an X on the line between 4 and 5. The conclusion is true if there is at least one person in 2 or 5. The first X might be in 5 but it might also be in 4. The second X might be in 5 but it might also be in 6. We can't be sure that either of the X's is in 5, so the conclusion might be false. Therefore, the argument is invalid.
this argument is.
9. Translation: All people who can vote in Thursday's election are registered Republicans. (Notice that "registered Republicans" goes in the predicate slot because it is preceded by "only.") Shade 1.
Remember that the predicate of the conclusion takes the top right circle, the subject of the conclusion takes the top left circle, and the middle term (the term that appears in both premises but not in the conclusion) takes the bottom circle. Designate each section with a number, 1 through 7, starting from left and moving right.
the "got a part" circle, but she might also be in 1, in which case she is not. We can't be sure, so the argument is invalid; Shirley may have gotten a part or she may not have.
Answers to Diagnostic
2. Invalid, so not good. Same reasoning as above.
2. Tranlation to standard form: No people who win the lottery are people who don't buy tickets. (Notice that the obverse of this is "All people who win the lottery are people who buy tickets." These are equivalent statements, so you can diagram either one.) To diagram the first claim, make the left circle "people who win the lottery" and the right circle "people who don't buy tickets." Shade in 2. (To diagram the obverse claim, make the left the same and the right "people who buy tickets." Shade in 1. Either way, the claim that "You can't win the lottery if you don't buy a ticket" is depicted.)
All people who showed up for the Tuesday audition are people who got a part.
7. Translation: No people who have self respect are people who would cheat senior citizens for a living. Shade in 2.
8. Translation: Some people who are successful comedians are people who were once philosophy majors. Put an X in 2.
Because this exercise asks you to draw Venn diagrams of claims, use only 2 circles (because a standard form categorical claim has only 2 terms). Make the subject term of the claim take the left circle and the predicate term take the right circle. Designate each section by a number, 1 to 3, moving from left to right.
Therefore, no people identical with Shirley are people who got a part. Invalid. Shirley might be in 2, in which case she would Air Max 1 Black Gum Sole
All people who weigh over 500 pounds are people who have trouble climbing stairs. Shade in 2 and 3
Remember: determine whether an argument is good, first determine whether it is valid, then determine whether the premises are plausible and whether the premises are more plausible than the conclusion. For each of these exercises, determine validity by determining whether any immediate inference operations will result in equivalence between the two claims.
4. Translation: Some people with dogs are people who would rather have a cat. Put an X in 2.
3. Invalid, so not good. The premise, an 0 claim, could produce equivalent claims through contraposition and obversion. Contrapositive: Some non productive factories are non automobile plants. Obversion: Some automobile plants are non productive factories. But no immediate inference operation will result in an A claim, which is what Nike Air Max 97 Red Buy Online the conclusion of Air Max 1 Deluxe
1. Translation to a standard form categorical claim: All days when Todd visits his grandmother are days that are Tuesday. Shade in 1. The claim refers to the area where both terms intersect, area 2. So you shade out everything in the subject circle that is not section 2.
3. Translation: All computers powerful enough to perform this operation are computers that have Pentium processors. (You put the term "computers powerful enough" in the subject slot because the words "the only" appear before it.) Shade in 1.
Below are possible answers. You might have done them differently. If so, try the ones suggested below, as well.
6. Translation: No things that are money are things that grow on trees. Shade in 2.
Therefore, all people identical to Allan are people who weigh over 500 pounds. Invalid. Allan might be in 5, in which case he does weigh over 500 lbs.(because he's in the 500 lbs circle), but he might also be in 4, because we haven't shaded that in. We can't be sure, so the argument is invalid (because the conclusion might not be true).
5. Translation: All people who have been to Paris are people who know it's a wonderful city. Shade 1.
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